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Hausa-Fulani Caliphate/Sokoto Caliphate by Ikechi1 Hausa-Fulani Caliphate/Sokoto Caliphate by Ikechi1
Collaboration with bybystarlight bybystarlight.deviantart.com/

More information on the Hausa ikechi1.deviantart.com/art/Hau…

More information on the Fulani ikechi1.deviantart.com/art/Ful…

More information on Gobir, Katsina and Zaria ikechi1.deviantart.com/art/Gob…

Storyline featuring the characters ikechi1.deviantart.com/art/Blo…


This is a simple representation of the beginnings of what would be the relationship between the Hausa tribes of Northern Nigeria and the Fulani that lived in Northern Nigeria using the format of Hetalia to introduce people to Nigerian and African history.

For some context the Caliphate began during the era in the late 1700s-early 1800s known as the Fulani Jihads which were taking place all over West Africa with the different Fulani subgroups taking over the regions each subgroup had settled in. The Fulani in Nigeria were the last subgroup to start their own Jihad, but not for reasons of pure conquest, but to in their opinion right wrongs and settle issues.

The Fulani for the most part had remained nomads up until the late 1700s where they began to settle down. The Kingdom of Kano and its area enticed the Fulani to settle there and engage in trade with the Hausa kingdom where the relationship initially flourished.

This changed when Usman dan Fodio a well respected Islamic Fulani scholar and preacher began to preach in Gobir one of the city states of what was called Hausaland. His student Yunfa, (the Hausa King of Gobir) resented him due to the influence he had and the religious reforms he wanted to make and attempted an assassination. He summoned Usman to his chambers and prepared to kill him at gunpoint but Yunfa's pistol backfired. Yunfa then exiled Usman to the region of Gudu and was surprised when the Fulani population left Gobir and the other regions in the Hausa Kingdom to join Usman in exile. Fearing his growing power he declared war on Usman in 1804.

For a time Yunfa attained many victories but he did not count of the resourcefulness of the Fulani and had to be forced to drag the other Hausa vassals such as Katsina and Daura and eventually Hausa-Kano into his war with Usman and the Fulani. The Fulani then moved on to defeat Katsina, Daura and the other vassals before conquering the Kingdom of Kano in 1807. After taking the empire Gobir was left on its own to face the might of the Fulani and was captured in 1808 with Yunfa killed at his seat.

Usman was then hailed as the defender of the faithful or Amir al-Mu'minin and founded the early settings of what was first called the Fulani Empire. Dan Fodio's son Muhammad Bello founded the new capital, Sokoto in 1809. What was notable about the Sokoto Caliphate was that it banished the concept of hereditary rule, deciding that a ruler should be made based on his morals and his knowledge of scripture. They made plantations the new way to farm and built fortresses, schools and markets.

Though Fulani ruled, the former vassals of Hausa, now the vassals of Fulani were allowed their own autonomy as long as they swore allegiance. Eventually the Kano Emirate revolted in 1816-1817 but was quickly put down and appeased when the Fulani realized how similar they were culturally and began adopting some of the customs and culture of the Hausa beginning what is referred to as the marriage of the two tribes known today as the Hausa-Fulani.

The Sokoto Caliphate was largely very expansionist, reaching as far as the edges of the Oyo Kingdom. In the 1830s the Empire stretched from Burkina Faso to Cameroon making it one of the largest African empires in the 19th century. In 1837 a census was made and it was learned that the Empire now had 10 million people within its borders.

Slavery went on in the Empire though compared to iterations of slavery in other countries, the line became a lot more blurry. Only Non-Muslims were made slaves and you could escape slavery if you honestly converted to Islam. Many former slaves even became Sultans themselves. Even Non-Muslims could be freed based on their hard work and character as Usman had earlier decreed to give understanding to the other traditional religions. The Fulani-Hausa union benefitted from trading with the Tuaregs in the Trans-Saharan trade.

The empire flourished due to the government and economic systems for near a hundred years. But as with all African empires, it's decline began once the Europeans began their own period of expansion, known as colonization. In 1891 the French explorer Parfait-Louis Monteil visited the empire as it was dealing with another uprising, this time with the Kebbi Emirate. France deduced that the war would have drained the resources of the Empire and made plans to take the Sokoto Caliphate.

However by 1902 the British had already been moving into what would become Nigeria and Frederick Lugard made plans to take over the Sokoto Caliphate. Knowing that an all out British invasion of a united Hausa-Fulani Empire would be too costly, he played all the vassals against each other to reduce their defenses until finally crushing the remnants of the Empire in 1903. Lugard styled himself as the new Sultan and the Empire was divided up initially between France, Britain and Germany due to the terms of the Berlin conference. British influence reigned supreme however as Lugard allowed for growth and autonomy like the Fulani had done before and learned the language and culture of the Hausa-Fulani. Even after the founding of Nigeria in 1914 after the defeat of the Nri-Igbo, Lugard held the North above the South.

Whatever was left of the Caliphate served in name only until Nigerian independence where they were able to expand their influence with the Sultans returned in strength but as part of a new country with new systems and the Caliphate would not stretch beyond Sokoto itself. Through civil war and dictatorships the Sultans have survived and so has the Hausa-Fulani culture, stronger after more than 200 years of intermingling with the current Sultan of the region of Sokoto coming to power in 2006, Sa'adu Abubakar.
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:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Mar 30, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
Never thought Africa could have civilizations. 
Reply
:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Apr 2, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Egypt, Carthage, Morocco, Zulu, Kush, Ethiopia, Mandinka, Nri, Berber are just a few of the thousands that can be named
Reply
:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Apr 2, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
Wow that IS fascinating. 
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:iconlive4adventure:
Live4Adventure Featured By Owner Edited Apr 4, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Are you being sarcastic?

If not: what made you think there can't be civilizations in africa?

If so: you should get your facts straight.
Reply
:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Apr 4, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
I wasn't being saracastic, I only thought that the non Islamic parts of Africa could not boast civilizations. Well that and using the history of North american tribes as a basis for the groups in Africa.
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:iconlive4adventure:
Live4Adventure Featured By Owner Apr 4, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
A lot of african tribes do resemble north american tribes concerning ways of living. But that doesn't mean all of africa was like that. And like ikechi1 says, there were plenty of great civilizations that flourished without islam. Nubia (the oldest civilization in Africa), Egypt, Kerma, Kush, Punt, and Ethiopia are great examples.
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:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Apr 4, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
Really.
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:iconlive4adventure:
Live4Adventure Featured By Owner Edited Apr 4, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Yes.
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Mar 31, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
ah
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:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Mar 31, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
ALthough I have to wonder what sort of Islam Usman was enforcing on the Caliphate to follow.
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Apr 1, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Sufi Islam, specifically the Qadiri subset of Sufi Islam
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:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Apr 1, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
Ah. 
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Apr 2, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
It promotes celibacy in its leaders, poverty, meditation and ascetic prayers. You have to be 18 to join as understanding is required and leadership is traditionally not hereditary. Each Qadiri branch is allowed its own interpretations and practices of the Quran as dictated by its founder Abdul Qadiri Jilani in 1119 CE
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:iconbruiser128:
bruiser128 Featured By Owner Apr 2, 2016  Student Traditional Artist
Reminds me a bit of Hinduism in how the final stage revolves around renouncing all worldly pleasures, asceticism and meditation to achieve enlightenment. 
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Apr 2, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Which is why there are lot of Qadiri Muslims in India
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(1 Reply)
:iconborussiamacau89:
BorussiaMacau89 Featured By Owner Sep 27, 2015  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Hahaha! She's like- Like a boss!
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
yes indeed she is.
Reply
:iconborussiamacau89:
BorussiaMacau89 Featured By Owner Sep 28, 2015  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
hellz yeah
Reply
:icondinosaurusgede:
dinosaurusgede Featured By Owner Sep 8, 2013  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Fulani-Fula looks so fabulous.
Who knows from her sweet and kind face lies a terrible strength and power XDDDD
Hahaha, I was really surprise she used to be an Empire. Appearance can be deceiving
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Sep 8, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
It's always the sweet looking ones that hide the greatest strength.
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:icontm1forever:
TM1Forever Featured By Owner Jul 16, 2013
Yes! I :heart: African Hetalia. Keep up the good work bro :thumbsup:
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Jul 16, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
glad you like
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:iconbubblekirby:
bubblekirby Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2013
Is this alternate history? If so, what is the nail?
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Not alternate, but an anthropomorphism of it. The Hetalia series often uses humans to be the representatives of countries, kingdoms and city states, with their actions and behavior mirroring the historical actions and culture of where they represent like for example the Netherlands being a staunch Economist.
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:iconbubblekirby:
bubblekirby Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2013
Forgive me for I know very little about African culture, but does that mean Nigeria has actually sultans? I mean that's so cool!
Reply
:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Jun 27, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Yes it does, the current sultan of sokoto is named Sa'adu
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