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Government history of Nigeria by Ikechi1 Government history of Nigeria by Ikechi1
Collaboration with HopelessPandora 


NORTHERN NIGERIA

Queen Amina                     Yauri                  Zamfara             Kebbi and Gwari                    Gobir, Katsina and Zaria

Daura               Fulani-Wodaabe               Fulani-Fula          Hausa-Kano    Kanuri         Fulani-Kontagora

MIDDLE BELT NIGERIA

Nupe          Jukun      Ngas

SOUTHEAST NIGERIA

Ekumeku-Igbo          Anaang           Ibibio          Akpa-Ibom Isi               Ijaw           Nri-Igbo               Aro-Igbo                Itsekiri

SOUTHWEST NIGERIA

Oyo-Yoruba     Egba-Yoruba   Edo-Benin      Fulani-Ilorin

CURRENTLY IN OTHER COUNTRIES

Fon           Hausa-Zinder

 Miscellaneous and History

Tribes side by side 

Blood of the Kingdoms story featuring all the characters




Disclaimer: This is an anthropomorphized version of the voting and government history of Nigeria. I am giving my take on the various governments Nigeria has had. The picture depicts how voting is done in Nigeria, with the circle at the top representing someone being apprehended for committing vote fraud. Like my other pieces regarding Nigerian history, this will be done in the Hetalia format of storytelling.

It all started with the formation of Nigeria in 1914. Sir Frederick Lugard, appointed by England to be the governor of Nigeria ruled the young colony unevenly. Lugard favoured Hausa-Kano, Fulani-Fula, Kanuri, Gobir and the other northern tribes and gave them benefits that uplifted their station in life whilst towards the southern and middle tribes he had little to no regard for. This put the tribes in an uneven position. However despite this, from two opposing ideas formed the seeds of vying for independence. In the mid 1910s during World War I Egba-Yoruba led a revolt in the city of Abeokuta which was swiftly put down by British forces.

The second revolt would come after the end of World War I, started by Nri-Igbo called the Igbo Women's War which called for female recognition in the government as the British had taken away some of the say that Igbo women had traditionally. Whilst England was suffering from the Great Depression and economic war debts and the new governor having trouble handling the disparity in Nigeria, England was forced to give a concession to the tribes of Nigeria to allow them to have more autonomy over themselves in 1922 called the Clifford Constitution.

The Clifford Constitution allowed all the tribes the ability to self-govern while still having the requirement to report to the British afterword. England thought that it would pacify the tribes but Nri-Igbo and Egba-Yoruba would not be satisfied. The first instance of this was Egba-Yoruba founding the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) in 1923.

Their voices became drowned out by the din of World War 2 but the tribes learned something during their time during the Burma campaign for those that were stationed in East Asia. The tribes met Mahatma Gandhi and learned the art of non-violent protest and returning home, began to form their own groups to peacefully add pressure on England in 1944.

It worked and England passed another concession in 1944 called the Richards Constitution. It allowed the formation of tribal political parties though the tribes still were not allowed into colonial politics in the region but they were given much more autonomy. Nri-Igbo and Egba-Yoruba convinced many of the tribes to join them in forming a large political opposition party to the colonial one called the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC).

The Nigerian tribes began to have more say nationally instead of just regionally as England gave Nigeria another concession in 1951 called the Macpherson Constitution. Hausa-Kano became an intermediary between England and the other Nigerian tribes, however, Nri-Igbo and Egba-Yoruba became displeased with these actions as it started to seem that Lugard's policies were still slightly in effect.

England, seeing that it could no longer hold on to any of its colonies for much longer, wrote the final concession, the Lyttleton Constitution on 1954. This allowed more political parties to be formed and the two elected to positions of power were Nri-Igbo and Bauchi. When independence came, Nri-Igbo had Nnamdi Azikiwe become the first President of Nigeria whilst Bauchi had Abubakar Tafawa Belawa become the first Prime Minister, signifying at the time a union between the Northern and Southern tribes, and thus the First Nigerian Republic was born.

Nri-Igbo and Bauchi split Nigeria into 3 geo-political regions, Western, Eastern and Northern. The major political parties then governed each region under them. Hausa-Kano and Fulani-Fula headed the Northern People's Party (NPC). Akpa-Ibom Isi ran the NCNC since Nri-Igbo had a president and represented those in the Eastern Region whilst Oyo and Egba-Yoruba co-ruled the Action Group that represented the Western Region.

The effects of Lugard's policies could still be felt though as the Northern Region had the most seats in Nigeria's parliament and could generally veto anything the other two parties wanted passed which gave the Northern region a 3 year dominance period.

The rule of Nri-Igbo and Bauchi would last from 1963-1966 then a military coup occured led by disillusioned troops killing most of the political people in office. Nri-Igbo was able to save her president and many other Igbo and other tribal officials, but Bauchi lost his prime minister.

Nri-Igbo was able to put down the coup and installed herself as the head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria oh January 16 1966. Suspicion abounded as to whether everything was simply a master plot made by Nri-Igbo to gain control of the region as the Igbo were the most rapid to adapt to many situations compared to the other tribes. Igbo in order to show that she had the best interests of Nigeria at hand, surrounded herself with major and minor tribal allies, like Ngas and Hausa-Kano from the North and some of the Yoruba and middle belt tribes like Junkun (of the Hadjarai tribal family). Egba-Yoruba, Ngas, Hausa-Kano and Junkun were vehemently opposed to the decisions Nri-Igbo made as the four of them felt that Nri-Igbo was not doing enough to punish the citizens that had enacted the coup which further fueled hatred and suspicion of the Igbos.

The hatred came to a boiling point when Fulani-Fula acted on her suspicions by massacring several Igbos that were living in the Northern region and driving them to the south. To top it off Junkun appeared outside Nri-Igbos' official, Johnson Aguyi-Ironsi and arrested them for possible complicity in the coup.

Ngas was then put in power with Hausa-Kano aiding him (though some suspected Hausa-Kano and Fulani-Fula were the real power.) Nri-Igbo then called for a secession, hoping that Oyo-Yoruba would be able to convince the others tribes to secede so that instead of Nigeria, there would be several smaller countries. Initially Hausa-Kano thought the idea of tribal countries would be a great idea but was then pressured by England into rejecting his previous statement as England did not want to have to deal with needing to form additional diplomatic ties with new nations. Oyo-Yoruba refused to secede and Nri-Igbo and her allies (Itsekiri, Akpa and others) left to form their nation of Biafra.

Ngas, Hausa-Kano and Fulani Fula would not have any of this and thus began the Nigerian civil war. The Middle belt and western tribes decided to stay out of the conflict whilst Germany, England, Switzerland, Russia, France, Belgium, South Africa, China, Poland, Hungary, USA, Portugal, Niger, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Syria, Canada, Rhodesia, Dahomey (Fon refused to support Oyo-Yoruba but she lent supplies to Biafra), Egypt, Sudan and Chad dove into the conflict to see what they could benefit from the civil war, some supported the Biafrans, others supported the Nigerians. Oyo-Yoruba would not enter the war until Nri-Igbo actually made invasive moves towards his territory, prompting him and the Middle belt tribes to enter the war.

In the end Nri-Igbo lost and Ngas immediately wanted a reconstruction of the area in order to raise Nigeria economically and with Hausa-Kano's assistance, called for the ideals of Nationalization of Nigeria and for the abolition of purely tribal political parties. This strategy worked and Ngas ruled until 1975 where he started to make small transitions back to a democratic government but not before he was overthrown by Hausa-Kano who was tired of his rule and properly established himself and Fulani-Fula as the new heads of Nigeria in 1975.

However Hausa-Kano's man Murtala Muhammed was assassinated in a failed coup attempt, putting Oyo-Yoruba as the new head of the Federal Nigerian Government with his man Olusegun Obasanjo. Oyo continued Ngas' work and made the transition to a civilian government in 1979 with the Second Nigerian Republic.

Fulani-Fula's man Shehu Shagari was elected as the new president of Nigeria placing Fulani-Fula as the head of Nigeria once again, but this time democratically. In order to further heal the wounds of the Biafran war, Fulani-Fula asked Nri-Igbo to rule beside her in a vice-presidency role with Nri-Igbo's man Alex Infeanyichukwu Ekwueme. Thus Nigeria had its first vice-president. Fulani-Fula and Nri-Igbo divided Nigeria up into several more regions, allowing more tribes to have their own autonomy like Edo-Benin had been given during the civil war. Thus Nupe got his own region and so did Bauchi and Kanuri.

The Second Nigerian Republic lasted between 1979-1983 with Fulani-Fula taking advantage of Nri-Igbo's economic talent to allow for an economic boom to take place in Nigeria, with many immigrants from Ghana to come to Nigeria for jobs. Katsina however felt that he saw corruption in this power base and with the help of Muhammadu Buhari, Kanuri and Fulani-Ilorin launched his own coup that overthrew Fulani-Fula and Nri-Igbo and placing himself in power.

Katsina's reign lasted from 1983-1985 until Gbagyi (another northern tribe) overthrew him with the help of Ibrahim Babangida to establish his own military rule from 1985-1993. Gbagyi (also called Gwarri) tried to do what Oyo-Yoruba had done previously and reestablish a democratic state and tried to, and failed to successfully create the Third Nigerian Republic in 1993. The Third Republic, which placed Egba-Yoruba as the new leader of Nigeria with President Ernest Shonekan. It lasted three months.

Kanuri forcefully seized power in 1993 from Egba-Yoruba and placed himself as the new head with Sani Abacha becoming the 10th Head of State of Nigeria. Kanuri decided that it was time that Nigeria was taken seriously as a military power and when trouble began in Sierra Leone and Liberia he sent in Fulani-Fula to handle matters, making Nigeria a recognized military power. With this validation Kanuri ruled with an Iron Fist until 1998 when Sani Abacha died and Hausa-Kano placed Abdulsalami Abubakar in power.

Hausa-Kano decided that it was time to properly end the string of military coups and that democracy would be the ideal setting for Nigeria. Abubakar established INEC in order to create fair elections. In 1999 Hausa-Kano and Abubakar willingly stepped aside as Oyo-Yoruba and Olusegun Obasanjo were democratically given leadership of Nigeria creating Nigeria's current Fourth Nigerian republic.

Oyo-Yoruba would rule until 2007 where he stepped down to let elections take place for the next president. Katsina and Fulani-Fula co pushed for Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (Katsina ruled but had Fulani-Fula helping) and in order to make it balanced so that the south would not be unrepresented Ijaw's man Goodluck Jonathan was chosen to be vice president. This allowed Katsina, Fulani-Fula and Ijaw to lead Nigeria until Yar'Adua fell ill and died placing Jonathan as president in 2010. In order to maintain the North-South balance Ijaw appointed Zazzau (also known as Zaria) to rule by her side. This is the current state of the government of Nigeria as of this deviation.
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:iconciusol:
Critique by Ciusol Apr 29, 2014, 1:29:22 PM
I admit, I am not to fond of OCs, since many of them were made only for the sake of shipping them with the creators' favorite character. However, your OCs for the many Nigerian tribes are very well-researched and I would definitely enjoy reading a comic with them as the main characters. Its a breath of fresh air for me, since most Hetalia OCs are either
A. on the Mary Sue spectrum
B. are something off-putting, like Antarctica or Pangaea
C. designed the same (example: most South America OCs I have came across are females with tan skin, dark curly brown hair, and have "moe" features), or designed inaccurately (there has been a blond Israel OC).

From the essay that you wrote on the formation of Nigeria, I can see that you put a lot of time and effort in researching its history. You explained clearly on what was happening in the government from 1914 to the present times. It really left a good impression on me, since the idea of researching Nigeria had never crossed my mind before. Now I want to learn some more about the history and culture.

Your art has to be one of the best drawings I have seen on dA. Many many MANY artists tend to go for the more stereotypical manga style, but you chose to give a more realistic look to your style. The characters look ethnically black, you can get a good impression on how they feel, and the clothes are beautifully colored. Another thing I like about your drawing is how well-done the perspective is.

I hope to see more of your work.
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:iconartnerdx:
artnerdx Featured By Owner Aug 25, 2014  Professional Digital Artist
impresive :)
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Aug 26, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
the history or the drawing?
Reply
:iconthe-huntress-20:
The-Huntress-20 Featured By Owner Aug 1, 2014  Student General Artist
im curious what are your sources for this?
Reply
:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Aug 1, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Adekunle, Benjamin, and Abiodun A. Adekunle. The Nigeria Biafra War Letters: A Soldier's Story. Atlanta, GA: Phoenix Pub. Group, 2004.
Ademoyega, Adewale. Why We Struck: The Story of the First Nigerian Coup. Ibadan, Nigeria: Evans Bros., 1981.
Afigbo, A. E. Ropes of Sand: Studies in Igbo History and Culture. Ibadan: Published for University Press in Association with Oxford University Press, 1981.
Akintoye, S. A. A History of the Yoruba People. Dakar, Senegal: Amalion Publishing, 2010.
Amadi, Elechi. Sunset in Biafra: A Civil War Diary. London: Heinemann, 1973.
Bobboyi, H., and Mahmood Yakubu. The Sokoto Caliphate: History and Legacies, 1804-2004. Kaduna, Nigeria: Arewa House, 2006.
Bukar, Isa. Flying Horse, July/August 1969.
Carter, Marshall, and Otwin Marenin. Students and Police in Nigeria: The Power of Stereotypes : [paper] Presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association, Baltimore, Maryland, November 1-4, 1978. Baltimore, Ma.: African Studies Association, 1978.
De, St Jorre, John. The Brothers' War; Biafra and Nigeria. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972.
Drewal, Henry John., John Pemberton, Rowland Abiodun, and Allen Wardwell. Yoruba: Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought. New York: Center for African Art in Association with H.N. Abrams, 1989.
Ezeani, Godalex Ibeneme C. Biafra: The Logic for Its Being. [S.l.]: Godalex Ezeani, 2004.
Hawley, John C. "Biafra as Heritage and Symbol: Adichie, Mbachu, and Iweala." Research in African Literatures 39, no. 2 (2008): 15-26. doi:10.2979/RAL.2008.39.2.15.
"How Yakubu Gowon Caused The Nigeria-Biafra War." Spyghana.com, September 5, 2013. Accessed October 1, 2013. www.spyghana.com/how-yakubu-go….
Ibegbu, Chuks. The Last Days of Gen Thomas Umunnakwe Aguiyi Ironsi: A Misunderstood Hero. Enugu: C. Ibegbu, 2008.
Ibrahim, Mustafa B. The Fulani: A Nomadic Tribe in Northern Nigeria. [S.l]: S.n, 1970.
Jaggar, Philip J. Hausa. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub., 2001.
Jokosenumi, Oluwatoyin Adewale. Obasanjo: The First 100 Days (May 29--September 5, 1999) : Laying the Foundation for Restoration. Yaba, Lagos: Macmillan Nigeria Publishers, 1999.
Kaladharan, Nayar M. G. Self-determination beyond the Colonial Context: Biafra in Retrospect. [S.l.]: [s.n.], 1975.
Korieh, Chima J. The Nigeria-Biafra War: Genocide and the Politics of Memory. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2012.
Layonu, Taslim Abiola., Bode Ojo, and Freeman E. Okosun. Reflections on Leadership in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: LAY-TAL Communications, 1992.
Lewis, Roy. "Britain and Biafra." The Round Table 60, no. 239 (1970): 241-48. doi:10.1080/00358537008452880.
Lugard, Frederick. Frederick Lugard: . London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1948.
Lugard, Frederick John Dealtry. The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa. London: F. Cass, 1965.
Madiebo, Alexander A. The Nigerian Revolution and the Biafran War. Enugu, Nigeria: Fourth Dimension Publishers, 1980.
Mitchell, Stephen. Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. New York: Harmony Books, 2000.
Moore, Michael M. Civil War in Nigeria: A Continuing Exploitation of African Tribalism. 1969.
Nafziger, E. W., and W. L. Richter. "Biafra and Bangladesh: The Political Economy of Secessionist Conflict." Journal of Peace Research 13, no. 2 (1976): 91-109. doi:10.1177/002234337601300202.
Nicolson, I. F. The Administration of Nigeria, 1900-1960: Men, Methods and Myths,. Oxford: Clarendon P., 1969.
Nwadike, Jerome Agu. A Biafran Soldier's Survival from the Jaws of Death: Nigerian-Biafran Civil War. [S.l.]: Xlibris, 2010.
Nwankwo, Arthur Agwuncha, and Samuel Udochukwu Ifejika. The Making of a Nation: Biafra,. London: C. Hurst, 1969.
Obasanjo, Olusegun. My Command: An Account of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970. London: Heinemann, 1981.
Obasanjo, Olusegun. Nzeogwu: An Intimate Portrait of Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. Ibadan: Spectrum Books, 1987.
Odurukwe, Ikechukwu. A New Dawn, Biafra, Our Right to Self-determination, Freedom and the Future. AuhorHouse, 2010.
Ojeleye, Olukunle. The Politics of Post-War Demobilisation and Reintegration in Nigeria. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2010.
Ojukwu, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu. The Ahiara Declaration: The Principles of the Biafran Revolution. Geneva: Markpress, 1969.
Ojukwu, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu. Because I Am Involved. Ibadan: Spectrum Books, 1989.
Ojukwu, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu. Biafra; Selected Speeches and Random Thoughts of C. Odumegwu Ojukwu,. New York: Harper & Row, 1969.
Onwukwe, S. O. Rise and Fall of the Arochukwu Empire, 1400-1902: Perspective for the 21st Century. Nigeria: Fourth Dimension Pub., 1995.
Onyesoh, Otigbuanyinya O. C. Nri: The Cradle of Igbo Culture and Civilization. Onitsha, Nigeria: Tabansi Press, 2000.
Ottenberg, Simon, and Toyin Falola. Igbo Art and Culture, and Other Essays. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 2006.
Salamone, Frank A. The Hausa of Nigeria. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2010.
Smith, Robert Sydney. Kingdoms of the Yoruba. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.
Tijani, Hakeem Ibikunle. Britain, Leftist Nationalists and the Transfer of Power in Nigeria, 1945-1965. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Uche, Chibuike. "Oil, British Interests And The Nigerian Civil War." The Journal of African History 49, no. 01 (2008). doi:10.1017/S0021853708003393.
Uwechue, Raph, Léopold Sédar Senghor, and Nnamdi Azikiwe. Reflections on the Nigerian Civil War: Facing the Future. New York: Africana, 1971.
Uzokwe, Alfred Obiora. Surviving in Biafra: The Story of the Nigerian Civil War : Over Two Million Died. New York: Writers Advantage, 2003.
Waugh, Auberon, and Suzanne Cronje. Biafra: Britain's Shame. London: M. Joseph, 1969.
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:iconthe-huntress-20:
The-Huntress-20 Featured By Owner Aug 2, 2014  Student General Artist
omg how in the universe do you find all this O.O
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Aug 2, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
I have access to the library of congress and i used to work in libraries. I can find journals and books with no issue, but you did ask for my sources, were you assuming a smaller size?
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:iconthe-huntress-20:
The-Huntress-20 Featured By Owner Aug 2, 2014  Student General Artist
yea maybe a bit smaller, when I research anything I cant find half that many sources but I suppose having access to the library of congress might have its benefits. can you get access online?
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Aug 2, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
yes, but you have to go to the library itself first to get your card
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:iconmensjedezeemeermin:
MensjeDeZeemeermin Featured By Owner May 6, 2014
All the world over, so easy to see...
People everywhere just wanna be free.

And now, murderous extremists.  Poor Africa!
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner May 6, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
um????elaborate please?
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:iconmensjedezeemeermin:
MensjeDeZeemeermin Featured By Owner May 6, 2014
I would like Nigeria to be peaceful, democratic in government, and free.

I would like all the groups in Nigeria to live in friendly co-existence.

I would like Boko Harum to be burning in Hell.

Is that more clear?
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner May 6, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
clear and agreed
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:iconmelondramatics:
melondramatics Featured By Owner May 3, 2014
gosh, I really think you are so talented with your art. I love the information and background you give to your works, there's a lot of thought behind what you do. I really admire you for it! ^^
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner May 3, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Thanks melon, also did you still want to do that history collaboration short that you mentioned? Because I had another history event idea that's more contained and more about the death of a Dahomey king in the 1800s that involved Maria I of Portugal
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:iconicefiredrag:
IceFireDrag Featured By Owner Apr 29, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Well, this is something you don't see everyday on Deviantart. I love the amount of detail you put into both the people and the background, all the way to the last tree. And I love how you clearly know what the people wear in Nigeria. I'm also jealous of your cell shading. Very pretty. I've learned a lot from the text below, also.
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:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Apr 29, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Probably helps that I'm Nigerian hahaha. Thank you very much. I made a series of these in order to enlighten people on Nigerian history as I believe it is often overlooked.
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:iconicefiredrag:
IceFireDrag Featured By Owner Apr 29, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Oh, cool! It is overlooked, and I'm glad to see someone making an effort on trying to enlighten people :)
Reply
:iconikechi1:
Ikechi1 Featured By Owner Apr 29, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
well that's why I find Hetalia a good venue to do that. I plan to actually cover every tribe eventually.
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